Designing a 12Vdc, 30kAdc Rectifier Transformer
3 x 3 x 400/230,
output voltages for Udc = 12Vdc
3 x 10.9Vac,
3 x 10.9Vac, star
current per secondary: (Ia1,Ib1,Ic1,Ia2,Ib2,Ic2)
I1 = 5850Arms
I0 = 4980Arms (dc-comp.)
I2 = 2880Arms
I14 = 1590Arms
I15 = 1170Arms
continuous operating mode
insulation class H
Ucc_s1-s2/Ucc >= 2..4 for
use with drainage choke
Steel & Core
strips for alternated stacking (45°),
"round" cross section
4 input screens are used to set the input parameters for the designing of
Winding parameters per limb
and 3 screens for selection and set up of material :
Windings parameters per limb
The following rectifier circuit is often used for low voltage&high current
a good current distribution between 2 parallel connected rectifiers
(with the drainage choke) the relationship Ucc_s1-s2/Ucc has to be
bigger than 2; Ucc_s1-s2 is the short-circuit voltage between the secondary 1
and the secondary 2; Ucc is the short-circuit voltage of the transformer. For
this condition the primary will be "sandwiched" between both
The core cross section and the induction have to be set so that each
secondary has only one turn. The form of the legs cross section have to be
Note that the short-circuit voltage of a rectifier transformer is a
complex issue reflecting:
the rectifier protection in a short circuit operation mode of
all secondary winding, a group of windings or of only one winding.
the commutation operation mode of a group of windings
the voltage drop of the dc-output voltage
the current distribution between the parallel connected
It has to be prescribed by the user of the transformer
The primary is created in star connection. The sine wave input voltage (UA,UB,UC)is 230V (230V per winding).
There is no duty cycle operation mode.
The primary will be manufactured with Cu-foil with a layer insulation
of 0.100mm. Note that there no big difference from an electrical or magnetic
point of view (if the distance between the sectors is small) between the
winding made by foil with one sector and the winding made by foil with more
(2-8) parallel connected sectors. The first and the last sector will be
overloaded by a higher eddy & circulated current losses and due to the
thermal insulation to the other sectors they will normally be hotter .
The primary lies between the secondary windings and the core. In order to
avoid using very large foil with it is created with 2 in series connected
sectors All the surfaces of the
primary are cooled via the cooling channels of 20mm . The space between the yoke and the
primary windings is 20mm. With the eddy current losses factor
(RacRdc) 1.15 shall be limited the number of the parallel connected foils per
The both secondary windings
are created with 2 in series connected ONE ROUND TURN, BAR WOUND
The sine wave output voltage per sector is 10.9V.
The rms current through each sector (secondary) is 8774Arms. The set
current harmonics are calculated for the worst case: Ucc= 0 and Ld = ∞:
Also, there is no duty cycle operation
mode on the secondary.
With the eddy current losses factor (RacRdc) 1.1 and 1.25 the use of parallel
connected bars per sector shall be avoided . Note that at this point of the design
you cannot prescribe the wire or foil (bar) size. You can select only the wire or
family or foil (bar) which the program has to use in order to select the suitable
wires or foils (bar) for your application.
secondary winding has only 20mm cooling channels.
The space between the yoke and the secondary windings is 20mm
On this input screen you can :
select and manipulate the selected steel M111, 035mm (M6,
set the operating induction (1.55T) and the frequency (50Hz)
select the core assembly
and prescribe the core selection.
The "round" core cross section was prescribed by the designer for easier winding
of the high current foil (bar) windings: The value of the cross section and
the induction were set in order to get only one turn per sector
The window height was optimized for the low eddy current losses with a Cu-bar
thickness between 5mm and 6mm.
Normally you use for this application M111, 0.35mm (M6, 14mil), not
annealed after stamping, grain oriented strips.
The cooling medium is air with the ambient temperature 40°C. The cooling surface of the core is
increased by using 4 L-brackets on the core.
The impregnation is practically "dry" because there is only 10%
varnish (90% air) in the windings and in all the gaps between the insulations
and the layers of the windings
The selected criterion of the design is the temperature rise of 120°K for
insulation class H. The oval space between the first winding and the tube
(stomach), all gaps between the insulation, the windings and the varnish fill
factor of them, play a very important roll from the thermal point of view.
The first step is the presentation of the output screen DIAGNOSIS: it is
the summary of the most important calculated parameters of your transformer.
Note that the program uses the numerical calculation of the magnetic
fields and the temperature rises. Due to this technology the calculations of
the eddy current losses, the steel losses, the short-circuit voltage, the
circulating current and the transposition are very powerful.
The following picture shows the magnetic field outside the core window.
The ampere-turns of 1., 5., 7... current harmonics in the primary and in the
secondary are compensated. They produce axial leakage magnetic field
The ampere-turns of the 0.(dc-current), 2., 4. ,... current harmonics do not
exist in the primary. They exist only in the sectors of the secondary, are
compensated too and produce radial leakage magnetic field.
Finally here are 4 printed pages showing the design results
Nominal operating mode
If you are not satisfied with the solution made by the program you can
switch into the Test Mode and change your transformer by hand:
Material (Cu or Al)
Number parallel connected wires and their order in strand
Cooling channels and insulations
Technology parameter (impregnation, gaps,...)
and then you can set it under an operation mode changing:
Loads and their K-factors
Duty cycle of each winding
Note that the program will calculate (not select from a data base) the
thickness of the foil (bar) for the prescribed temperature rise of 120°K. In order
to get an available foil (bar) you have to set the thickness of the foil by hand.
If you would like to modify this transformer in order to use it for 12Vdc,
15kAdc then you need only to change the foil&bar width (200mm instead 400mm)
and reduce the height of the core window for 400mm.